About Hip Hops HISTORY
The term ‘hip-hop’ refers to American urban black culture featuring DJing, graffiti art, breakdancing, MCing and ‘rap’. Hip-hop music focuses on rhythm rather than melody and harmony. It is characterised by rapping, use of samples, use of programmed beats and DJing.
Hip-hop originated in the Bronx area of New York in the 70’s. Its vocal origins lie in the Jamaican ‘toasting’ tradition. Toasting is a cross between talking and rhythmic chanting which was originally practised by Jamaican MCs.
Black DJs such as Grandmaster Flash and the Jamaican-born ‘father of hip-hop’ Kool Herc extended the instrumental sections (or ‘breaks’) from records by mixing between two identical copies of the same record.
Some of the DJs (or MCs) rapped over the top of the breaks.
Dancers would get up during the breaks and perform a highly gymnastic style of dance using head and back-spinning. They became known as breakdancers.
Hip Hopens ELEMENT
Dance music DJs use different ways to manipulate the sound of recordings, adding their own creative element to the music they play. Originally DJs used vinyl records, but today many use CD decks, laptops and software packages to mix tracks, loop sections and create new compositions live.
DJ techniques include:
Mixing: where records are mixed together
Beatmatching: changing the speed at which a record is played so that its tempo matches that of the song currently playing
Cueing: finding a suitable point on a record to mix in
Blending: when a DJ uses the equaliser to create a more seamless sounding mix pitch shifting: changing the speed of the record
Scratching: moving a vinyl record back and forth, using different cross fader techniques to cut sound in and out
Beat juggling: is the act of manipulating two or more samples in order to create a unique composition looping: is when a digital sampler is used to repeat a sample over and over again
Hip hop dancing is thought to have officially begun in New York City during the late 1960s and early 70s. During this time, individuals without professional dance training but with a natural instinct for movement, brought dancing to the streets. A dance form meant to be popular in the original sense of the word, meaning that it was for the people and not for the academy, hip hop moves were inspired by complex rhythms and the down-to-earth movement style of African dancing.
Music and movement came together to form a new art. While vestiges of modern, tap, swing, and African dancing can all be found in hip hop, this dance style is really in a class of its own when it comes to improvisation and an edge of competition.
Rapping is rhythmical, rhyming, semi-spoken recitation. Often the lead vocal is joined by another member of the group who doubles the last word of some lines/ adds answering phrases/ adds spoken ad libs.
A sampler is a device that can take any sound that is put into it, process it and play it back. A sample is a digitally recorded fragment of sound: it could be a bass guitar riff, a song chorus, the sound of breaking glass, or indeed anything